OS POLICIES

CoNOSC Members OS policies

Belgium

Belgium has been involved in Open Science for some years. Three entities within the International and Federal Cooperation Commission on Open Science (ICC-FCC Open Science) are mostly involved, by way of funding research. The ICC-FCC Open Science also provides input when Belgium participates in international fora and other organisations.

One consulting entity is the Department of Economy, Science and Innovation, (EWI) from the Flemish Authority, and the Belgian Science Policy Office, BELSPO is another. The latter provides an Open Science philosophy and mandates for Open Access to Publications and to Research Data.

The Direction générale de l’Enseignement supérieur, de l’Enseignement tout au long de la vie et de la Recherche scientifique, (DGESVR), is the third consulting entity. It has an Open Science roadmap for 2020-2022, and a dedicated website underway. Its funding organisation, the FRS-FNRS, has already published their Open Access policy online.

Two other Flemish entities are involved in different ways. The Flemish Research Foundation made their Open Access mandate available. And, as of early 2022, the Flemish Authority’s Open Science Board (FOSB) has been drafting a comprehensive Open Science policy. 

Links:


Czech Republic 

Approved by the Government in July 2020, the National Policy for RDI 2021+ already contains OS actions. Actions 8 and 13 focus on working toward the Open Access to R&D results, incl. data. This  includes the implementation of the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). 

Action 8 needs a new Action Plan. Such a plan would succeed the Action Plan 2017–2020 (Czech only), although a timeline has yet to be established.

For the implementation of Action 13, a project, National Centre for Information Support of Research, Development and Innovation (NCIS RDI) (2021-2027) was initiated by the National Library of Technology (NTK). Its shared activities are: 

  1. Continuation of the  Czech National Centre for Electronic Information Resources (CzechElib) and the transition to Gold OA via transformative agreements,
  2. The National repository (supporting Green OA), 
  3. Activities connected to the implementation of European Open Science standards in Czech research. 

In addition, two complementary projects are underway, (2023-2027), under NTK and e-infra. The first focuses on improving accessibility and sharing e-resources and metadata support. The second will support the implementation of the EOSC and national data infrastructure.

Links:


Denmark

The Danish Ministry of Higher Education focuses on three key elements of Open Science but does not have a national Open Science strategy. The key elements are:

  • Open Access to scientific peer-reviewed publications – Denmark’s National Strategy for Open Access (2014)
  • FAIR research data – National strategy for data management based on the FAIR principles (2021)
  • Research Integrity: Danish Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (2014)

Priority areas and plans for 2022

Denmark’s National Strategy for Open Access aims to provide Open Access to all scientific publications from Danish universities in 2025. Every year, the Danish Open Access Indicator monitors the progress of Open Access at Danish universities.2021 measurements show that 60 percent of  Danish scientific articles from the Danish Universities were OA. The National Strategy for Open Access will be evaluated in 2022.

National stakeholders such as universities and other research institutions have started implementing the national strategy for data management based on FAIR principles in 2022. Furthermore, a working group of national stakeholders, recently set up by the Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science, will coordinate those measures that require national coordination and monitor progress.

The Danish Ministry of Higher Education and Science also plans to revise the Danish Code of Conduct for Research Integrity in 2022. This includes intending to update the Code with the recent developments in Open Science, including FAIR data.

Links:


Finland

Supported by the Open Science and Research Secretariat, the Finnish research community co-created the Declaration for Open Science and Research 2020-25. Four policies sustain the declaration: open access to publications, and to research data and methods, open education, and open scholarship. A policy suite will be completed by the end of 2022.

An open science and research monitoring tool is being developed to observe the success of strategic objectives.

Links:

Policies on Open Science in Finland


France

The 2016 law on a digital Republic inaugurated France’s open science policy. It set out the obligation to open up data from public research and authorizing researchers to disseminate their articles in open access. The current French Open Science policy is based on national plans for open science, led by the Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and Innovation. After the launch of the first Plan in 2018, the second Plan, which covers the period 2021-2024, addresses Open Science through four objectives: 

·         Making open access to publications the default

·         Structuring, sharing, and opening up research data 

·         Opening up and promoting source code produced by research

·         Transforming practices to make Open Science the default principle

One significant action of this plan is the creation of Recherche Data Gouv, a federated national platform for research data, including a data repository and a support network for research teams. The plan also emphasizes the need for diverse economic models for open access publishing, multilingualism, and the transformation of practices through training and reform to research assessment practice. 

France has created the National Fund for Open Science to contribute to the financing of its national open science policy. It issues calls for projects to strengthen open access publishing capacities and supports French and international open science infrastructures. The fund amounts to about 3 million euros per year.The Committee for Open Science brings together a wide range of French higher education and research stakeholders in various working and steering bodies and ensures the good governance and implementation of the national policy. More information can be found on the Committee’s website.

Links:


Germany

Open Science policies in Germany exist at the research organisation level. Within OS, Open Access strategies and policies are being implemented at federal and state levels. In addition, the National Research Data Infrastructure Germany (NFDI) has been focussing on open/FAIR data. Other research data initiatives in the federal states are also underway.

Links and OS policy examples from institutions:

Selected links:


Hungary

Hungary’s first national level Position Paper on Open Science was published on 18 October 2021 by the National Research Development and Innovation Office (NRDI Office) advisory committee.

The NRDI Office is one of three main research funders in Hungary. The signatories include major associations of stakeholder groups in the country. An open call for more stakeholders to sign the document is ongoing. More activities will be planned to increase participation in the Open Science approach.

Personal and online workshops for public consultation on the Position Paper are scheduled for 2022. The aim is to advocate the basic ideas and values of OS. Gaining input on the paradigm shift in research culture is also part of the activities.

The NRDI will prepare a report and draft for a national Open Science strategy/policy by the end of 2022. 

Links to stakeholders:


Ireland

A consultation for the National Action Plan for open research was launched on 4 April 2022. The plan was founded on existing national policies and international recommendations, including the:

A draft version of the National Action Plan is already available.


Latvia 

The Latvian National Open Science Strategy 2021-2027 (Latvian only) was adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers in March 2022. The strategy aims to provide society, researchers, businesses, policymakers, and other stakeholders with freely accessible scientific information. It will also promote meaningful societal engagement in the scientific research process.

The Open Science Strategy is structured around three pillars:

  1. Open Access to Scientific Publications: Addressing Open Access publishing practices and the national OS policy. All scientific publications produced for new state-funded research projects must be openly accessible in “green” or “gold” open access, without an embargo period.
  2. FAIR research data: Ensuring that research data be open by default, and that data, metadata and e-infrastructures intended for long-term preservation and reuse meet the FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) principles.
  3. Citizen Science: Encouraging co-creation in the context of citizen science activities. Supporting initiatives by, e.g. providing access to scientific e-infrastructures and integrating citizen science in Latvian science communication activities. Latvian stakeholders will be encouraged to participate in international initiatives and networks related to citizen science.

A full English translation of the Latvian Open Science Strategy will be shared once it becomes available. 


Malta

Malta adopted its first National Open Access Policy in December 2021. The Policy builds on the outcomes of the support that Malta received between 2019 and 2020 through the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Policy Support Facility (PSF) to develop a national Open Access policy. 

The National Open Access Policy 2021 presents a roadmap for Malta targeted at local Research Performing Organizations (RPOs), and Research Funding Organizations (RFOs). It focuses on different subject areas; namely, Open Access to scientific publications, Open Research Data under the principle of “as open as possible, as closed as necessary,” and related actions on awareness-raising, skills, training, and support as well as research and researcher assessment. The Policy defines concrete phases for each subject area, with activities at each phase developing experience, skills, and competencies and establishing infrastructure which becomes permanent and is exploited in successive phases. Through this approach, Malta developed a Policy that strikes a balance between an over-ambitious policy, which would not find the support of local stakeholders and an unambitious and uncontroversial policy that would not significantly improve the state of open access in Malta. The Policy envisages the implementation of the specific, recommended actions to be completed by the end of the year 2025. 

The policy implementation process commenced in 2022, with the priority areas and plans for 2022 being:

  • establishment of a strong governance structure to enable the necessary synergies
  • introduction of more institutional Open Access policies
  • establishment and upgrading of relevant infrastructures, more dedicated funding and technical support
  • introduction of more and upgrading of existing training activities by relevant Maltese institutions
  • more awareness-raising of the benefits of practising Open Access. 

Links:


Netherlands

Open Science in the Netherlands is in progress, and moving toward coordination and connecting initiatives. The movement is transitioning from a “nice to have” project, to a necessity to be reflected in incentives and rewards. 

Already in its second version, the National Plan on Open Science centres around three cornerstones:

1.    Increasing access to scientific publications (Open Access),

2.    Improving possibilities for the optimal (re)use of research data,

3.    Connecting evaluation and valuation systems to the goals of Open Science (reward and recognition systems).

Main ambitions for 2022:

  • Achieving 100% Open Access publishing: Continue a joint approach for all Dutch research organisations and research disciplines, recognising their differences and needs.
  • Making research data optimally suitable for reuse: Establish clear and joint preconditions of technical and policy requirements for enabling reuse of research data.
  • Recognition and appreciation: For OS to become part of the evaluation and valuation process for researchers, research groups and research proposals. An investigation has been started to that end.
  • Stimulation and support: Set up a clearing house with all the necessary information to support researchers in all fields of OS.


Norway

The Norwegian government first announced its goals and guidelines for Open Access to research publications in 2017. Open Science is part of Norway’s approach to research, education and innovation. Its policies are woven into the government’s overarching goal toward a well-functioning knowledge system. 

The country is on its way to making all publicly funded research openly available by 2024. This relates to sharing research data, and the need to reform the country’s framework for recognition and rewards. 

These items will be leading the discussion in the National Forum for Open Science 2022 agenda:

  • Building competence and infrastructure for FAIR data
  • Developing and implementing renewed practices for recognition and rewards.

Government representatives, HEIs, research institutes, funders, agencies and unions will also attend.
Links:


Slovenia

Slovenia has been developing and maintaining its Open Science policies since 2015. The National Strategy of Open Access to Scientific Publication and Research Data in Slovenia 2015-2020 and its action plan were the first. The new Research and Innovation Strategy of Slovenia (RISS 2030) contains a section dedicated to OS and is under discussion in the National Assembly. 

On 1 January 2022, the new Research and Innovation Activity Act took effect. It includes important OS provisions. The Government is working on a decree for the operationalisation of this Act. As part of its Recovery and Resilience Plan, Slovenia aims to start several digitisation OS activities this year:

  • Upgrading the backbone network of public research organisations, 
  • Building two research data repositories,
  • Supporting public research organisations in operating according to the principles of Open Science.

Links:


Sweden

The Swedish Research Council is nominated by the government as the mandated organisation in the EOSC Association. Since April 2017, it has been coordinating the national work of introducing Open Access to research data. The National Library of Sweden was given the mandate to coordinate the introducing principles to promote OA to scientific publications. 

In April 2021, both assignments were updated and extended to promote their work. This included mapping, analysis and assessment, including OA to research data and scientific publications. Universities and Higher Education institutions took on a third assignment: to continue development work toward an OS system. 

According to the 2020 Research Bill, (Swedish only), the national direction is to complete the transition to OA to research data by 2026. The guiding principle is: “As open as possible, as limited as necessary.” 

Links


Switzerland

The Swiss Open Science policy centres around two aspects of Open Science: Open Access and Open Research Data.

The Swiss National Strategy on Open Access was adopted in 2017. It was created by swissuniversities and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF). The goal and vision of the Action Plan is to have 100% of its publicly funded scientific publications available in OA by 2024. Together with the SNSF, swissuniversities offers scientists and scholars practical and financial support for the OA publication of their work. More information is available in the Swiss Open Access Implementation Plan adopted in 2021.

The Swiss National Strategy for Open Research Data (ORD) and Switzerland’s National Open Research Data Action Plan were set up in 2021. The plan specifies measures for the guiding principles and objectives defined in the ORD strategy. Open Access and Open Research Data activities are funded for the 2021-2024 period by the Swiss universities programme Open Science, the SNSF, the ETH Domain and the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences. The partner organisations are collaborating to implement the plan’s measures through the ORD Strategy Council.

Links:


Ukraine

Ukraine is actively working on the national OS policy despite the war.

In 2021 the Ministerial working group proposed Amendments to the Law of Ukraine “On Scientific and Scientific-Technical Activity” (Ukrainian only), including new and updated definitions of OS, open access, research infrastructure, etc. They were publicly discussed and sent for approval to Ukrainian central executive bodies in Nov 2021.

The Ministerial Working Group on the National Plan for OS Development released the draft plan in Nov 2021. As the next step, the Ministry of Education and Science launched the public discussion of the draft order of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, “On Approval of the National Plan of Activities for Open Science implementation till 2030” (Ukrainian only). The discussion was concluded on March 28, 2022, and the Ministry has recently started the approval procedure with other public bodies. 

Due to the current circumstances, most plans are likely to be postponed until 2023. However, several projects and volunteers are working on training materials on OS to be introduced in Ukrainian HEIs starting from autumn 2022.

Links:

Links: